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书名: Android Game Programming For Dummies

作者: Derek James

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ISBN: 978-1-1180-2774-5

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Android
Game
Programming
FOR
DUMmIES
by Derek James
Android
Game
Programming
FOR
DUMmIES
Android
Game Programming For Dummies
®
Published by
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
111 River Street
Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774
www.wiley.com
Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey
Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey
Published simultaneously in Canada
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Manufactured in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
About the Author
Derek James is the founder and owner of Polyclef Software, one
of the most successful Android indie game developers on Google
Play. His apps and games have garnered over 1 million combined
downloads, with multiple games receiving four-star or better rat-
ings and holding top-ranking positions in their categories for many
months. He was an early adopter of the Android platform and has
been developing Android apps and games since the first device
was released. He lives in Lafayette, Louisiana. You can follow
Derek on Polyclef’s Twitter feed (@polyclefapps), his blog
(http://polyclefsoftware.blogspot.com), and his website
(polyclefsoftware.com).
Dedication
To Jenna, who was there by my side throughout the writing
of this book.
Author’s Acknowledgments
Thanks to Acquisitions Editor Kyle Looper for contacting me to
work on this book. I’m grateful for the opportunity.
Thanks for Project Editor Pat O’Brien for all the valuable and
timely feedback in helping get this book put together.
Jeremy Breaux provided invaluable feedback as technical editor,
helping to make sure that the code and examples worked well and
were clear.
Finally, thanks to Laurie, as well as my friends and family for being
supportive throughout the writing process.
Publisher’s Acknowledgments
We’re proud of this book; please send us your comments at http://dummies.custhelp.com.
For other comments, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974,
outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002.
Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following:
Acquisitions, Editorial, and
Vertical Websites
Project Editor: Pat O’Brien
Acquisitions Editor: Kyle Looper
Copy Editor: Barry Childs-Helton
Technical Editor: Jeremy Breaux
Editorial Manager: Kevin Kirschner
Editorial Assistant: Leslie Saxman
Sr. Editorial Assistant: Cherie Case
Cover Photo: © iStockphoto.com / Cary Westfall
Cartoons: Rich Tennant (www.the5thwave.com)
Composition Services
Project Coordinator: Katherine Crocker
Layout and Graphics: Carrie A. Cesavice,
JoyceHaughey, Christin Swinford
Proofreaders: Melissa Cossell,
Shannon Ramsey
Indexer: BIM Indexing & Proofreading Services
Publishing and Editorial for Technology Dummies
Richard Swadley, Vice President and Executive Group Publisher
Andy Cummings, Vice President and Publisher
Mary Bednarek, Executive Acquisitions Director
Mary C. Corder, Editorial Director
Publishing for Consumer Dummies
Kathleen Nebenhaus, Vice President and Executive Publisher
Composition Services
Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services
Contents at a Glance
Introduction ................................................................ 1
Part I: Adopting the Android Gaming Mindset ................ 7
Chapter 1: Getting to Know Android Gaming .................................................................9
Chapter 2: Designing Your Game
................................................................................... 27
Chapter 3: Setting Up Your Development Environment
.............................................51
Part II: Starting to Program ...................................... 77
Chapter 4: Dissecting an Android App ..........................................................................79
Part III: Making Your First Game: Crazy Eights .......... 109
Chapter 5: Creating a Simple Title Screen ..................................................................111
Chapter 6: Creating a Basic Play Screen
..................................................................... 135
Chapter 7: Finishing Your First Game
.........................................................................181
Part IV: Moving On to Your Second Game:
Whack-a-Mole ......................................................... 199
Chapter 8: Creating a Complex Title Screen...............................................................201
Chapter 9: Creating an Animated Play Screen
...........................................................217
Chapter 10: Storing and Retrieving GameInformation
............................................. 245
Part V: Managing Your Game in the Market ................. 261
Chapter 11: Making Money with Your Game ..............................................................263
Chapter 12: Publishing and Updating YourGame
..................................................... 277
Part VI:The Part of Tens ........................................... 295
Chapter 13: Ten Open-Source Game Projects ............................................................ 297
Chapter 14: Ten Game Engines and Tools
.................................................................. 307
Chapter 15: Ten More Places to Distribute Your Game
............................................317
Chapter 16: Ten Websites for Android GameDevelopers
........................................327
Glossary ................................................................. 339
Index ...................................................................... 343
Table of Contents
Introduction ................................................................. 1
Why You Need This Book ...............................................................................1
Conventions Used in This Book .....................................................................2
Technical Considerations ...............................................................................2
How This Book Is Organized .......................................................................... 3
Part I: Adopting the Android Gaming Mindset ...................................3
Part II: Starting to Program ...................................................................4
Part III: Making Your First Game: Crazy Eights ..................................4
Part IV: Moving On to Your Second Game: Whack-a-Mole ...............4
Part V: Managing Your Game in the Market .......................................4
Part VI: The Part of Tens .......................................................................5
Icons Used in This Book .................................................................................5
Where to Go from Here ...................................................................................6
Part I: Adopting the Android Gaming Mindset ................ 7
Chapter 1: Getting to Know Android Gaming ......................9
Seeing the Potential of the Android Platform ..............................................9
Where Android came from .................................................................10
And where it’s going ............................................................................10
What You Must Know about the Mobile Gaming Industry .......................11
Handhelds and smartphones .............................................................11
iOS or Android ......................................................................................11
How Android Is Suited to Mobile Gaming ..................................................13
Growth ...................................................................................................13
Freedom ................................................................................................14
Potential ................................................................................................ 14
Thinking Through Your Game Project ........................................................14
Designing rst .......................................................................................15
Following a structured development process .................................19
Deciding on distribution .....................................................................20
Knowing What Tools You Need ................................................................... 21
Capitalizing on Your Game ...........................................................................22
The tried-and-true approaches ..........................................................22
Android Game Programming For Dummies
xiv
Chapter 2: Designing Your Game................................27
Deciding What Kind of Game to Make ........................................................27
Genre .....................................................................................................28
Number of players ..............................................................................29
Thinking about how and when people will play your game ...........31
Identifying Your Target Audience ...............................................................34
The Android user base ........................................................................35
Casting a wide net or nding a niche ................................................36
Targeting Devices .......................................................................................... 37
Firmware ...............................................................................................38
Hardware...............................................................................................39
Designing the interface and controls ................................................43
Finding and/or creating resources (graphics and sound) ..............46
Chapter 3: Setting Up Your Development Environment.............51
Starting at the Beginning ..............................................................................51
Downloading and Installing Eclipse ............................................................53
Installing the Software ..................................................................................57
Installing the SDK .................................................................................57
Installing the ADT ................................................................................58
Connecting Eclipse to the SDK ...........................................................61
The Android Virtual Device (AVD) Manager ..............................................61
Creating a virtual device ..................................................................... 62
Launching a virtual device..................................................................66
Creating an Android Project ........................................................................67
Running an Android App ..............................................................................71
Manual launch control ........................................................................71
Starting apps.........................................................................................73
Part II: Starting to Program ....................................... 77
Chapter 4: Dissecting an Android App ...........................79
Creating a New Project .................................................................................79
Taking the Bird’s Eye View of a Project ......................................................83
Editing the Manifest ......................................................................................83
Naming and versioning your game .................................................... 84
Targeting versions ............................................................................... 85
Declaring activities ..............................................................................85
Setting permissions .............................................................................86
Targeting different screen sizes .........................................................87
xv
Table of Contents
Organizing Resources ...................................................................................88
Drawables .............................................................................................89
Layouts ..................................................................................................91
Strings....................................................................................................93
Styles .....................................................................................................94
Themes ..................................................................................................94
Sounds ...................................................................................................95
Organizing the Source Directory ................................................................. 95
Understanding Activities .............................................................................. 97
The lifecycle of an activity ..................................................................98
Using Views ..................................................................................................101
Differences between View and SurfaceView...................................101
Instantiating a custom view ..............................................................102
Drawing in a view ...............................................................................103
Handling input ....................................................................................106
Part III: Making Your First Game: Crazy Eights .......... 109
Chapter 5: Creating a Simple Title Screen ......................111
Creating a Custom View ..............................................................................111
Loading the Title Graphic ...........................................................................113
Drawing the Title Graphic ..........................................................................115
Handling Screen Orientation ......................................................................119
Controlling Screen Timeout .......................................................................121
Making the Game Full-Screen ..................................................................... 122
Adding buttons ............................................................................................124
Handling Button States ...............................................................................127
Launching the Play Screen .........................................................................129
Intents..................................................................................................133
Bundles................................................................................................134
Chapter 6: Creating a Basic Play Screen........................135
Displaying Cards ..........................................................................................135
Loading the card images ...................................................................135
Dealing the cards ...............................................................................139
Displaying the game state .................................................................141
Taking Your Turn ........................................................................................152
Handling turns ....................................................................................152
Picking up cards .................................................................................156
Playing cards ......................................................................................161
Showing dialog boxes (and toasts)..................................................164
Taking cards from the draw pile ......................................................172
Advancing play ...................................................................................175
Android Game Programming For Dummies
xvi
Chapter 7: Finishing Your First Game ...........................181
Ending Hands and Games ........................................................................... 181
Ending a hand .....................................................................................181
Ending a game ....................................................................................189
Wrapping Up the Game ...............................................................................192
Coding the opponent AI ....................................................................192
Making your own launcher icon.......................................................195
Part IV
Moving On to Your Second Game: Whack-a-Mole ........ 199
Chapter 8: Creating a Complex Title Screen .....................201
Using SurfaceView ....................................................................................... 202
Adding an Options Menu ............................................................................ 212
Toggling the Sound Option .........................................................................213
Chapter 9: Creating an Animated Play Screen ...................217
Handling Images for the Play Screen .........................................................217
Making Simple Animations ......................................................................... 223
Handling User Interaction ..........................................................................228
Loading and Playing Sounds ......................................................................234
Handling End of Game .................................................................................239
Chapter 10: Storing and Retrieving GameInformation ............245
Using Shared Preferences for Data Storage .............................................246
Using XML for Data Storage .......................................................................249
Using a SQLite Database for Data Storage ................................................253
Part V: Managing Your Game in the Market .................261
Chapter 11: Making Money with Your Game ....................263
Knowing Your Competition ........................................................................263
Monetization Models ...................................................................................269
Free ...................................................................................................... 269
Paid ...................................................................................................... 270
Free-to-Paid .........................................................................................272
Ad-based .............................................................................................274
In-app Purchases ................................................................................275
Alternatives to Google Play ........................................................................ 276
xvii
Table of Contents
Chapter 12: Publishing and Updating YourGame ................277
Creating a developer account for Google Play ........................................277
Generating a Key with Keytool ..................................................................278
Exporting a Signed Application .................................................................279
Uploading Your Game to Google Play .......................................................282
Uploading the APK .............................................................................283
Adding product details .....................................................................284
Supporting and Updating Your Game After Publication ........................292
Part VI: The Part of Tens ........................................... 295
Chapter 13: Ten Open-Source Game Projects....................297
Lunar Lander ................................................................................................297
Replica Island ............................................................................................... 299
Alien Blood Bath .......................................................................................... 299
OpenSudoku ................................................................................................. 300
Lexic ..............................................................................................................301
Newton’s Cradle ...........................................................................................302
Vector Pinball ...............................................................................................303
asqare ............................................................................................................303
tiltmazes .......................................................................................................304
GL ES Quake .................................................................................................305
Chapter 14: Ten Game Engines and Tools .......................307
libgdx .............................................................................................................308
AndEngine .....................................................................................................309
Unity .............................................................................................................. 309
OpenFeint .....................................................................................................310
Flurry .............................................................................................................310
Audacity ........................................................................................................311
sfxr .................................................................................................................312
GIMP .............................................................................................................. 313
Inkscape ........................................................................................................ 314
AdWhirl ......................................................................................................... 314
Chapter 15: Ten More Places to Distribute Your Game............317
Amazon .........................................................................................................318
Handango ......................................................................................................319
Opera Mobile App Store .............................................................................320
GetJar ............................................................................................................321
SlideME .........................................................................................................322
Appoke .......................................................................................................... 323
Android Game Programming For Dummies
xviii
AppBrain .......................................................................................................324
AndroLib
....................................................................................................... 325
Your Website
................................................................................................326
BitTorrent Sites
............................................................................................326
Chapter 16: Ten Websites for Android GameDevelopers .........327
Stack Overow .............................................................................................328
Android Developer
......................................................................................329
anddev.org
....................................................................................................330
Android Developers Blog
............................................................................331
Appolicious
..................................................................................................332
Android Tapp
............................................................................................... 333
Phandroid
..................................................................................................... 334
xda developers
.............................................................................................335
Droid Gamers
...............................................................................................336
Android and Me
...........................................................................................337
Glossary .................................................................. 339
Index
....................................................................... 343
Introduction
T
here’s something special about games. The best games, the ones we
remember, don’t just relieve our boredom from time to time. They teach
us new things, stretch our brains, or make us feel happy, excited, and some-
times angry! Social games can even bring us closer to our friends and family.
We all have games that we think of fondly, that added something to our lives.
Now, with the advent of smartphones, we can carry that experience around
in our pockets and purses.
I still remember when my parents hooked up our first video game, Pong, to
the family television. At the time that luminescent “ball” traversing the blurry
screen was the coolest thing I’d ever seen. I’ve played a lot of games on a lot
of platforms in the intervening years, but when my friend Philip gifted me
with the first Android phone, the G1, I was skeptical that it would make a very
good gaming platform. Who wants to play games by staring at a tiny screen
on a device whose primary function is to make phone calls? Then again, the
iPhone had by that time already proven that people were not only willing to
play games on their smartphones, they were absolutely ravenous for games
on their smartphones.
When the Android market launched, it took a little while to get some traction.
I developed and published some of the first games on the market, when not
many other developers were flocking to the platform. The G1 was a clunky,
first-generation device, they said. It’ll never compete with the iPhone, they
said. Open platforms are never good for gaming, they said. Well, I was able
to make enough games that generated enough income to let me develop for
Android full-time. And the platform has come a long way in the meantime;
now Google doesn’t have a problem attracting game developers.
When I was approached to write this book, I jumped at the chance to write
about a subject that blends my two passions of gaming and programming. I’m
guessing you share those passions as well, and want to make cool, compel-
ling games. I’m going to help you make that happen.
Why You Need This Book
Obviously you want to make games for Android, but you may not know
where to get started. You may not even have any programming experience —
if you do, great! — but I don’t make too many assumptions about your level
2
Android Game Programming For Dummies
of experience. By default, Android apps are written in Java. All the examples
in this book are also in Java, so it’s helpful, but not necessary, to have some
working knowledge of Java. However, even someone with little or no experi-
ence should be able to work through this book.
By the end, you’ll have a good understanding of Android, two complete,
working and playable games, and a solid foundation for developing and pub-
lishing your own games. Along the way, I also talk a bit about how you might
get more downloads and actually make money from your games. If any or all
of that interests you, this book is a great place to start.
Conventions Used in This Book
Code examples are all in the Java programming language. Android also uses
XML files to define layouts and preferences in projects. I use a monospaced
font to show examples of the content that lurks in these types of files. The
idea is to set the examples apart from other text; they look like this:
System.out.println(“Hello”);
Java and XML are case-sensitive (it matters whether letters are capitalized),
so be sure to capitalize letters in any code example from the book exactly as
you see them. If you don’t, you’ll see compile errors in Eclipse.
URLs for websites will also appear in monospaced font
http://www.google.com
If you are ever confused about the contents of a given file in any of the proj-
ects discussed in this book, you can always refer to the actual source files
here:
www.dummies.com/go/androidgameprogramming
Technical Considerations
To develop games for Android, you need a PC running a version of either
Linus, Windows, or Mac OS that meets the requirements for both the Android
SDK and the Java Development Kit (JDK). Both the SDK and JDK are freely
available from their respective websites, where you can find more detail
about specific system requirements:
3
Introduction
http://developer.android.com/sdk
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/
index.html
Android also uses the Eclipse IDE (integrated development environment),
which we will be using throughout this book. Installation of all this software
is covered in Chapter 3.
As I stated earlier, a working knowledge of Java and XML are helpful, but
not necessary. If you’re familiar with any high-level language and develop-
ment environment, you should be fine. If not, you should still be able to work
through the examples and put together workable games, but you’ll likely
have a bit more of a tussle.
If you’re interested in developing for Android, you probably have an Android
device, but you don’t necessarily need one. The Android SDK provides an
emulator which lets you configure virtual devices to test your games without
the actual hardware.
But testing playability without actual devices is not advised. Especially if
you’re designing for multiple form factors, such as both phones and tablets,
you’ll probably want to invest in at least a couple of test devices.
How This Book Is Organized
Android Game Programming For Dummies is divided into six parts. The follow-
ing section describes the contents of each part.
Part I: Adopting the Android
Gaming Mindset
Part I provides you with a history of Android and mobile gaming to this point
in time. I contrast Android game development with other platforms and dis-
cuss its pros and cons. This part also helps you think through all the neces-
sary decisions before you begin to program, including the basics of designing
a mobile game for Android.
4
Android Game Programming For Dummies
Part II: Starting to Program
Part II walks you through setting up your development environment and
installing all the necessary frameworks and tools for building Android games.
I show you how to create a simple Android project and run the resulting
app on both virtual and real devices. I then walk you through the guts of an
Android project to get a closer look at what all the pieces are and how they
all fit together to make a game.
Part III: Making Your First
Game: Crazy Eights
Part III involves making your first game, the two-player card game Crazy
Eights. You create a title screen, load and display graphics, and implement UI
elements such as buttons. You implement all the elements for a card game,
including such tasks as loading, shuffling, and dealing a virtual deck of cards.
You implement all the logic for playing cards and taking turns, and also con-
jure up a computer opponent to play against. By the end of this part, you’ll
have a complete, playable card game for Android.
Part IV: Moving On to Your Second
Game: Whack-a-Mole
Part IV shows you how to make a second complete game, Whack-a-Mole. I use
a different approach than our first game that’s slightly more complex, but
provides the additional rendering speed we need for real-time arcade games.
I cover how to generate simple animations and how to load and play sounds
in response to events in the game. I also show you how to store and retrieve
data, allowing you to manage game states between sessions. By the end of
this part, you’ll have a second complete playable game.
Part V: Managing Your
Game in the Market
Part V discusses how to make money from your game, if that interests you.
I also discuss the nuts and bolts of exporting and digitally signing your
game for upload to Google Play. I walk you through the process of creating
an uploadable application file, but also all the promotional resources you’ll
5
Introduction
need for the market listing. I then show you how to upload your game to the
market and update it when it’s there.
Part VI: The Part of Tens
Part VI provides you with some handy resources to help you develop your
own games while working through this book and moving beyond it. I dis-
cuss some intriguing open-source game projects that cover genres and
approaches that the two sample games here don’t cover — such as side-
scrolling platformers and word games. Then I point you to game engines
you can leverage to save you lots of time, and point out some features like
physics engines that handle chores like gravity and movement and would
take months to implement otherwise. I also talk about free tools to help you
create your own graphics and sound resources, as well as frameworks to
help you promote and monetize your game.
Icons Used in This Book
This icon indicates useful information you should pay attention to.
This icon represents important overriding concepts that frame all the content
in a particular section.
This icon indicates information that dives a bit deeper into the technical
aspects of a particular subject. Usually it’s not essential to your understanding
of the associated material, but is provided to give you a better handle on the
topic.
This icon points out potential problems you might encounter when you’re
dealing with a particular aspect of development. Pay particular attention to
these and try to avoid these pitfalls when possible.
These links connect you to valuable internet resources.
6
Android Game Programming For Dummies
Where to Go from Here
Are you ready to start developing games for Android? I hope you enjoy the
process as much as I enjoyed putting this book together for you. I tried my
best to make the subject informative and entertaining, but if you have any
additional questions, you can contact me via e-mail at polyclefsoftware@
gmail.com. If there are updates, they’ll be posted at
www.dummies.com/go/androidgameprogrammingfordummies
Part I
Adopting the
Android Gaming
Mindset
In this part . . .
P
art I gets you ready to build amazing games by giving
you the background you need to understand
Android as a gaming platform — and then by walking you
through all the necessary steps for designing your game.
Idiscuss the history of Android and mobile gaming, then I
talk about all the things you need to consider before firing
up your computer to start coding.
Chapter 1
Getting to Know Android Gaming
In This Chapter
Learning the background of Android
Approaching Android as a gaming platform
Planning your first game
Y
ou love games and now want to make some of your own, specifically for
smartphones and tablets. You’re in luck! These are exciting times for
the mobile game industry. Mobile device adoption is exploding, and mobile
games are the hottest segment of mobile applications.
Android in particular is experiencing enormous growth. That means your
games will be available to millions of users around the world. Android is also
a great platform for developers, with flexibility and freedom unparalleled on
other mobile platforms.
Seeing the Potential of
the Android Platform
Whether you want to make games for Android as a personal project or as
part of a plan to launch your own game studio, the platform has a lot of
things going for it. For starters:
Android is an open platform.
That means fewer restrictions on what you have access to and what you
can do.
Android is the fastest-growing mobile platform.
That means more people to download and play your games.
10
Part I: Adopting the Android Gaming Mindset
Where Android came from
Android started out as a secretive startup in 2003, and luckily got bought by
Google in 2005 as a way to enter the mobile software market. The first ver-
sion of Android was released on the G1 (also known as the HTC Dream) in
late 2008.
Hard to believe there was a time when there was only one version of Android
running on one phone. Now there are hundreds of different models running
Android!
Android was built using Linux at its core, and the philosophy was simple:
Make a powerful mobile operating system that is free and open-source.
Manufacturers can focus more on hardware when they don’t have to
develop their own OS.
Anyone can take Android and customize it any way they want!
Google bet big on this strategy to lead to widespread adoption, and it has
worked like a dream.
And where it’s going
As of this writing, Android is big and growing:
Over 300 million people worldwide own Android devices.
Over 850,000 new devices are activated every day. That’s about another
300 million added per year.
Android is in version 4.0 (codename Ice Cream Sandwich), soon to release a
new major version.
In just a few short years, the advances in screen size and resolution and
processing power are staggering. Even though it started out on a single
smartphone, Android is now used in phones, tablets, and even television!
The future is bright, and Android shows no signs of slowing:
Market share is expected to continue to grow
More powerful multi-core devices will continue to allow for richer, more
sophisticated gaming.
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